“They became my children too”: The Multi-layered meanings of family letters from the Jewish Maquis in France

Introduction On 6th June 1944, Robert Gamzon, the leader of the Jewish Scouts of France, wrote a letter to his wife, Denise Gamzon about a local underground scout group he’d visited. The group was situated near the southern French city of Castres, just across the Agout river from another team he had worked closely with Read More

Private Parcel Campaigns from Axis-allied Finland to the Ghettos of Nazi Occupied Poland

During the death march in 1945, Nena Szlezynger, a Polish-Jewish seventeen-year-old girl, was marching with the inmates of a Silesian labour camp in Neusalz an der Oder towards Dresden. She was wearing a blue winter coat with a fur collar, a valued possession she had been able to keep for over two years after being Read More

Mapping the Hachshara Training Centers in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

The questionnaire of the Hehahalutz office for those interested in Hachshara training during the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in this post gives insight into one of the problematic ways of emigration in the early years of the occupation. Hachshara activities changed considerably at that time, as well as the social character of its participants.  Read More

Elderly People in the Terezín Ghetto

Distribution of infirm people in the Terezín Ghetto This document from the Jewish Museum in Prague from September 5th 1942 details statistics about the “Distribution of infirm people in the ghetto”. Statistics on the elderly and so-called “infirm” people are quite common in the departments of the Jewish Self Administration. This document includes also a map of Read More

Daily Orders from the Terezín (Theresienstadt) Ghetto

Daily Orders from the Terezín (Theresienstadt) Ghetto During the Second World War the Terezín/Theresienstadt Ghetto was one of the major sites of suffering and death for the Jews of the Bohemian Lands and several European countries including Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Denmark, Luxemburg and others. Of approximately 150,000 prisoners, over 30,000 died there between 1941 and Read More

Death Certificate of Gabriel Frankl from the Terezín Ghetto

Todesfallanzeigen (Death Certificates) The document presented in this post is one of more than 20,000 death certificates (Todesfallanzeigen) from Terezín (Theresienstadt) that have been preserved from December 1941 until September 1943 and were issued for all of the 30,000 people who perished in the ghetto. These death certificates, informed by normal procedures medical inspection, were Read More